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Fragmentation in East Asia: Further Evidence
This paper analyzes the spatial pattern of production/distribution networks in East Asia. Two issues are investigated. The one is how the formation of networks has changed the intra- and inter-regional trade pattern. We find that an explosive expansion of intra-regional trade in machinery parts and components, in particular among developing countries, contributes to the current dense networking. The other is how corporate firms effectively organize fragmentation in terms of geographical distance and disintegration. The micro data of Japanese firms indicate that long-distance transactions are mainly intra-firm while transactions in local markets are predominantly arm's-length (inter-firm), suggesting the formation of agglomeration.