Value Added Exports and the Local Labour Market: Evidence from Vietnamese Manufacturing Firms
The formation of global value chains (GVCs) has reshaped production processes across countries. This paper investigates the relationship between GVCs and firms’ employment by using panel data on Vietnamese small manufacturing firms for 2005–2011. The results suggest that increased foreign value added in exports results in higher wages, increased productivity, and a greater share of production workers in domestic small and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, it brings about a lower share of professionals and makes smaller firms retrain their existing workers. At the same time, domestic value added in the export of intermediate products has negative impacts on employment and increases wages, particularly in medium-sized firms. All of these may come from the increased competition for labour from larger firms.