Sustainability Assessment of Utilising Conventional and New Type Geothermal Resources in East Asia
New methods of low-carbon energy production and use are crucial building blocks for sustainable development. Despite having a number of advantages over other forms of renewable energy production, geothermal still comprises a relatively small part of energy mix in Asian countries. To catalyse a significant shift towards the sustainable production and use of geothermal energy, new techniques such as engineered geothermal systems, reservoir engineering, monitoring and scale controlling have to be introduced effectively. This study analyses the application of such technologies in China, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Practical guidelines and standards that have been implemented by the geothermal industry as best practice benchmarks of these techniques and that significantly improved the geothermal energy's uptake are also developed.