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Discussion Papers

Discussion Papers

Infrastructure

Projecting Infrastructure Needs and the Financing Mechanism: A Review of Estimations by ADB, McKinsey, and the OECD

24 March 2022

How much does a country, a region, and the world need to spend on infrastructure development to fulfil demand? This question has been asked frequently … Read More

East Asia, Infrastructure

Implicit Subsidies for Infrastructure and Their Implications for Contingent Liabilities in Selected East Asian Countries

23 March 2022

A government's investment decision for infrastructure development is a form of budget commitment which results in direct liabilities and possible contingent liabilities. The latter is … Read More

COVID-19, Indonesia, Innovation, SMEs

Digital Technology Adoption and Indonesia’s MSMEs during the COVID-19 Pandemic

22 March 2022

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has hit micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) hard. The estimated economic impact of COVID-19 could exceed the fiscal stimulus … Read More

East Asia, industry and manufacturing, Supply Chain

East Asian Production Networks Go Beyond the Gravity Prediction

21 March 2022

This paper provides empirical evidence that supports the continuing importance of machinery international production networks (IPNs) in East Asia. We first confirm their robustness and … Read More

Trade

Chief Executive Officer Attributes and Trade

24 February 2022

Many articles in international trade literature have shown that firm productivity is a robust determinant of firms export and import activities. Further, the literature has … Read More

Globalization, industry and manufacturing, Malaysia

Global Value Chains and Premature Deindustrialisation in Malaysia

23 February 2022

Malaysia has experienced premature deindustrialisation since the early 1990s. The decline in the relative contribution of manufacturing to the economy has been underpinned by structural … Read More

ASEAN, Finance, SMEs, Trade

Understanding SME Trade Finance in ASEAN: An Overview

22 February 2022

SMEs are the most important source of employment in all ASEAN countries, but a lack of access to external sources of finance may limit their … Read More

China, non-tariff measures, Trade

Technical Barriers to Trade, Product Quality and Trade Margins: Firm-level Evidence

07 February 2022

As tariffs have declined to a low level, the trade literature has paid increasing attention to the impact of non-tariff measures. Unlike tariffs, non-tariff measures … Read More

Competitiveness, Indonesia, Local Content Requirement, Trade

Indonesia’s Local Content Requirements: An Assessment on Consistency with Free Trade Agreement Commitments

04 February 2022

Local content requirements (LCRs) are one of several economic instruments used by governments to protect infant domestic industries or to generate employment. Indonesia has LCR … Read More

global value chains, labour productivity, microdata, SMEs, Viet Nam

Participation in Global Value Chains and Rent Sharing by Small Firms in Viet Nam

27 January 2022

It is well documented that firms that participate in global value chains (GVCs) are larger and more productive, maintaining higher profitability compared to those without … Read More

global value chains, Investment, Viet Nam

The Nexus between Inward Foreign Direct Investment and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Viet Nam

26 January 2022

In recent decades, Viet Nam, a developing economy, has significantly improved its export structure and, to some extent, its participation in global value chains (GVCs), … Read More

ASEAN, East Asia, global value chains, industry and manufacturing, Investment, Trade

Overview of Foreign Direct Investment, Trade, and Global Value Chains in East Asia

25 January 2022

This paper provides an overview of the patterns and trends of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade as well as the formation and development of … Read More

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