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Discussion Papers

Discussion Papers

FDI, SMEs, Viet Nam, Investment

Impacts of FDI Presence and Product Sophistication on the Demand for Skilled and Unskilled Labour: Evidence from SMEs in Viet Nam

02 February 2023

This study employs data from the Viet Nam Enterprise Survey (VES) for 2007 and 2011) to examine the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) and … Read More

RCEP, Indonesia, free trade agreement, FTAs, Trade

RCEP and Indonesia: Economic Reform and Prospects for Implementation

10 January 2023

The conclusion of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is very important for Indonesia as it may bring many benefits to the country. This paper … Read More

Digital Economy, ASEAN, Gender Equality, women in tech

Availability of Gender-Disaggregated Data on the ASEAN Digital Economy

10 January 2023

All Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States acknowledge the importance of gender data for policymaking on women’s economic empowerment and full integration into … Read More

Trade, Indo-Pacific

The Indo-Pacific Partnership and Digital Trade Rule Setting: Policy Proposals

14 December 2022

The idea of the Indo-Pacific was borne from a global trend that has (re)oriented the centre of the world’s economic gravity to the East. Accelerating … Read More

women in tech, Digital Economy, ASEAN

Women and Leadership in the ASEAN Digital Economy: Mapping the Rhetorical Landscape

13 December 2022

This paper assesses the nature of policy, media, and research representations of women’s inequality in digital leadership, reflecting on how clearly they define the issues, … Read More

Digital Economy, women in tech, Gender Equality, Cyber Violence, Cybersecurity, ASEAN

Gender Security and Safety in the ASEAN Digital Economy

13 December 2022

Gender-based cyber violence inhibits progress towards gender digital equality by discouraging women from participating in the digital economy. From the magnitude of the problem to … Read More

global value chains, manufacturing, labour productivity, Regulation and Governance, Trade, Viet Nam

Global Value Chain Participation and Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Firms in Viet Nam: Firm-Level Panel Analysis

28 October 2022

This study describes the status of global value chains (GVCs) in Viet Nam and examines the roles of GVC participation and technology in enhancing labour … Read More

RCEP, Japan, FTAs, Trade

Japan and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)

24 October 2022

This paper aims to clarify the role of Japan in the process leading up to the establishment of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). While … Read More

RCEP, RCEP countries, ERIA, ASEAN, Trade

The Role of the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) in Promoting the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)

24 October 2022

This paper aims to understand how the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA), an international organisation established under the East Asia Summit … Read More

ASEAN, Trade, Services

RCEP Services Liberalisation: Key Features and Implications

21 October 2022

The Trade in Services Chapter of the RCEP Agreement establishes the rules for the progressive liberalisation of trade in the region and sets out regulatory … Read More

RCEP, Trade, ASEAN, Investment, Services, CGE

Impact of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP): A Global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Simulation

21 October 2022

This study estimates the potential economic effects of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) by using a recursively dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, which … Read More

RCEP, ASEAN, Trade, Digital Economy, Services

International Production Network in the Next Generation and the Role of RCEP

21 October 2022

This paper attempts to discuss the potential role of RCEP from the perspective of two kinds of international division of labor, i.e., machinery international production … Read More

RCEP, Cambodia, Free Trade, FTAs

Potential Impact of RCEP and Structural Transformation on Cambodia

21 October 2022

This paper examines the potential impact of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) on the Cambodian economy in terms of trade, output growth, and employment. … Read More

RCEP, ASEAN, Trade, Services

The Implications of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) for Asian Regional Architecture

21 October 2022

East Asia’s Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) came into force in 2022 as the world’s largest free trade agreement. RCEP was concluded, signed and brought … Read More

RCEP, Rules of Origin, FTAs

Restrictiveness of RCEP Rules of Origin: Implications for Global Value Chains in East Asia

21 October 2022

This chapter aims to examine the restrictiveness of rules of origin (RoO) in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and other key multilateral free trade … Read More

ASEAN, Investment, FDI, East Asia

Investment Liberalisation in East and Southeast Asia

21 October 2022

This paper presents the trends and patterns in the inflows and outflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) and reviews FDI liberalisation in East and Southeast … Read More

Trade, FTAs, ASEAN, East Asia

Trade Remedies Chapter

21 October 2022

The aim of this paper is to analyse the trade remedies chapter in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement. Based on the comprehensive analysis … Read More

RCEP, RCEP countries, SMEs

Economic and Technical Cooperation in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Focus Areas and Support for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

21 October 2022

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) member countries differ in terms of the level of development. To ensure the benefits of RCEP are distributed equitably, economic … Read More

RCEP, RCEP countries, Trade, FTAs

Global Value Chain Indicators: A Survey and Application to RCEP

21 October 2022

This study follows and extends a survey by Amador and Cabral (2014) on global value chain (GVC) indicators and applies selected indicators to data from … Read More

ASEAN, RCEP, Services

RCEP and Modern Services

21 October 2022

In this chapter, we start with an overview of trade flows in modern services within the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) region and identify the … Read More

ASEAN, Trade, Investment

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Economic Backgrounds of ASEAN and Its Dialogue Partners

29 September 2022

We overview the economic backgrounds of the countries participating in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations and two Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) … Read More

ASEAN, RCEP, Trade, trade liberalisation

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, ASEAN’s Agency, and the Role of ASEAN Members in Shaping the Regional Economic Order

29 September 2022

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) – a mega free trade agreement comprising 15 countries – the 10 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member … Read More

ASEAN, RCEP

Centrality and Community: ASEAN in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

29 September 2022

This paper examines the Association of Southeast Asian Nations’ (ASEAN) role in the formation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement. The RCEP project … Read More

RCEP, Trade, RCEP countries

Trade Facilitation in RCEP Countries

14 September 2022

The trade facilitation under the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is critical for regional trade and economic cooperation amongst the 15 member countries. This chapter … Read More

E-commerce, Trade, RCEP, TPP, CPTPP, Policy, ASEAN

Opportunities and Challenges for ASEAN and East Asia from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership on E-Commerce

14 September 2022

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a microcosm of the current tensions in negotiations on digital trade involving parties that have divergent positions on … Read More

Trade, RCEP, Travel

Traditional Services Trade in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

14 September 2022

Traditional services trade (TST), including tourism and transport services, is the basic and key component of services trade in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). … Read More

RCEP, Trade, Investment, FTAs

The Investment Chapter in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Enhanced Rules without Enforcement Mechanism

14 September 2022

This paper examines the legal rules in the investment chapter in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). It starts with an overview and summary of … Read More

RCEP, tariff, Trade, ASEAN

How Preferential are RCEP Tariffs?

14 September 2022

This study discusses the extent to which the tariffs provided in the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) are preferential. RCEP does not necessarily adopt a … Read More

Europe, European Union, RCEP, Trade, trade policy

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement and Europe: Impact and Implications

29 August 2022

In the first 2 decades of the millennium, European Union (EU) trade policy underwent historic changes, amongst them an explicit pivot to Asia. Along … Read More

FTAs, free trade agreement, Economic Integration, Trade, Globalisation, RCEP

The Story of RCEP: History, Negotiations, Structure, and Future Directions

15 August 2022

This paper is about the story of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), including the history, dynamics of negotiations, and structure of this multilateral framework. … Read More

free trade agreement, Trade, Mega-lateral Free Trade Agreements, RCEP, CPTPP

Comparison of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and Other Free Trade Agreements (FTAs)

15 August 2022

This study evaluates the desirability of RCEP by comparing it with other mega-lateral FTAs. Evaluating the member-specific scale effects of the FTAs, we find that … Read More

free trade agreement, Trade, East Asia, global value chains, COVID-19

The Post COVID-19 and RCEP: Pandemic Recovery in East Asia

15 August 2022

The paper examines the impact of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) on the COVID-19 pandemic recovery of the East Asian countries. Recent studies highlight … Read More

Australia, East Asia, RCEP, Trade, Regulation and Governance, Asian Economic Integration

Australia’s Interests in East Asia’s Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

05 August 2022

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement was seen as important for Australia economically and politically from its inception. RCEP economies account for roughly two-thirds … Read More

China, East Asia, RCEP, Trade, Regulation and Governance

China and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: An Economic and Political Perspective

05 August 2022

This paper studies China’s policies and participation in East Asian economic integration and cooperation. The progress of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is remarkable … Read More

United States, RCEP, Trade, Regulation and Governance, Asian Regionalism, TPP

Heyday of Asian Regionalism? The Implications of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership for the United States

05 August 2022

This paper analyses the implications of the entry into force of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) for the United States (US). Traditionally, trade policy … Read More

Thailand, FTAs, EEC, Investment Promotion, Investment, Trade

Changes in Trade and Investment Policies in Thailand and the Implications for Medium-term Growth

05 August 2022

This paper addresses the noticeable changes in trade and investment policies in Thailand in the new millennium and assesses their impact. These changes began with … Read More

spillover effects, Philippines, Investment

FDI Spillover Effects: Evidence from the Philippines

05 August 2022

Using firm-level data in manufacturing, this chapter examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) spillover effects on domestic firm performance. Through knowledge spillovers, FDI … Read More

ASEAN, Trade, SMEs

What Determines Interfirm Trade Credit? Empirical Evidence from the ASEAN

14 June 2022

This paper empirically examines the link between the heterogeneity of firms and their probability of obtaining interfirm trade credit in Asia, with a specific focus … Read More

Finance and Macroeconomy

Prediction Errors of Macroeconomic Indicators and Economic Shocks for ASEAN Member States, 1990‒2021

30 May 2022

In this study, economic shocks on six selected Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet … Read More

Japan, Labour and Migration, Telework, Urban Development

COVID-19, Telework Patterns Within a City, and Changes in Urban Structure – Preliminary Findings

11 April 2022

With the coronavirus disease (COVID-19, the spread of teleworking means that people do not necessarily have to live near their place of work. Will the … Read More

Investment, Viet Nam

Entry Mode Choice and Performance of Foreign Direct Investment Firms in Emerging Economies: Micro-evidence from Viet Nam

29 March 2022

Does the right entry mode choice help foreign direct investment (FDI) firms to perform efficiently in emerging economies? This study attempts to answer this question … Read More

Infrastructure

Projecting Infrastructure Needs and the Financing Mechanism: A Review of Estimations by ADB, McKinsey, and the OECD

24 March 2022

How much does a country, a region, and the world need to spend on infrastructure development to fulfil demand? This question has been asked frequently … Read More

East Asia, Infrastructure

Implicit Subsidies for Infrastructure and Their Implications for Contingent Liabilities in Selected East Asian Countries

23 March 2022

A government's investment decision for infrastructure development is a form of budget commitment which results in direct liabilities and possible contingent liabilities. The latter is … Read More

COVID-19, Indonesia, Innovation, SMEs

Digital Technology Adoption and Indonesia’s MSMEs during the COVID-19 Pandemic

22 March 2022

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has hit micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) hard. The estimated economic impact of COVID-19 could exceed the fiscal stimulus … Read More

East Asia, industry and manufacturing, Supply Chain

East Asian Production Networks Go Beyond the Gravity Prediction

21 March 2022

This paper provides empirical evidence that supports the continuing importance of machinery international production networks (IPNs) in East Asia. We first confirm their robustness and … Read More

Trade

Chief Executive Officer Attributes and Trade

24 February 2022

Many articles in international trade literature have shown that firm productivity is a robust determinant of firms export and import activities. Further, the literature has … Read More

Globalization, industry and manufacturing, Malaysia

Global Value Chains and Premature Deindustrialisation in Malaysia

23 February 2022

Malaysia has experienced premature deindustrialisation since the early 1990s. The decline in the relative contribution of manufacturing to the economy has been underpinned by structural … Read More

ASEAN, Finance, SMEs, Trade

Understanding SME Trade Finance in ASEAN: An Overview

22 February 2022

SMEs are the most important source of employment in all ASEAN countries, but a lack of access to external sources of finance may limit their … Read More

China, non-tariff measures, Trade

Technical Barriers to Trade, Product Quality and Trade Margins: Firm-level Evidence

07 February 2022

As tariffs have declined to a low level, the trade literature has paid increasing attention to the impact of non-tariff measures. Unlike tariffs, non-tariff measures … Read More

Competitiveness, Indonesia, Local Content Requirement, Trade

Indonesia’s Local Content Requirements: An Assessment on Consistency with Free Trade Agreement Commitments

04 February 2022

Local content requirements (LCRs) are one of several economic instruments used by governments to protect infant domestic industries or to generate employment. Indonesia has LCR … Read More

global value chains, labour productivity, microdata, SMEs, Viet Nam

Participation in Global Value Chains and Rent Sharing by Small Firms in Viet Nam

27 January 2022

It is well documented that firms that participate in global value chains (GVCs) are larger and more productive, maintaining higher profitability compared to those without … Read More

global value chains, Investment, Viet Nam

The Nexus between Inward Foreign Direct Investment and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Viet Nam

26 January 2022

In recent decades, Viet Nam, a developing economy, has significantly improved its export structure and, to some extent, its participation in global value chains (GVCs), … Read More

ASEAN, East Asia, global value chains, industry and manufacturing, Investment, Trade

Overview of Foreign Direct Investment, Trade, and Global Value Chains in East Asia

25 January 2022

This paper provides an overview of the patterns and trends of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade as well as the formation and development of … Read More

Indonesia, Investment, Regulation and Governance

Local Content Requirements: Assessment from Investment Law

10 January 2022

Local content requirement (LCR) is one of several economic instruments used by governments for various purposes, including to protect infant domestic industries or to generate … Read More

WTO, Indonesia, Local Content Requirement

Indonesia’s Local Content Requirements: Assessment with WTO Rules

07 January 2022

Local content requirement is one of the policy measures used by many countries around the globe, including Indonesia, to protect and support their strategic sectors. … Read More

COVID-19, Indonesia, Trade

COVID-19: Impacts of Indonesia's Trade

07 January 2022

This paper analyses how the coronavirus (COVID-19) has affected Indonesia’s exports and imports, both in terms of volume and value. We use monthly trade data … Read More

Korea, manufacturing, Exports, Survival

Export Market Survival of Pioneers and Followers

20 December 2021

This study investigates empirically whether export pioneers and followers are different in terms of export market survival, utilising a rich plant-product-level dataset on Korean manufacturing … Read More

global value chains, India, manufacturing, research and development

Innovation, Product Sophistication and Export Market Survival: A Study of Indian Manufacturing

17 December 2021

The present study investigates the role of innovation on global market survival of Indian manufacturing firms. Specifically, the study examines whether research and development (R&D) … Read More

Indonesia, Globalisation, disaster resilience, Trade

Market Entry, Survival, and Exit of Firms in the Aftermath of Natural Hazard-related Disasters: A Case Study of Indonesian Manufacturing Plants

16 December 2021

By combining plant-level data from the Indonesian Manufacturing Survey and localised disaster data from the Emergency Events Database for the period 1990–2015, we were able … Read More

spillover effects, investment, Viet Nam

Spillover Effects of Foreign and Domestic Exporting Firms on Export Decisions of Local Manufacturing Firms: Evidence from Viet Nam

15 December 2021

Our paper investigates the spillover effects generated by foreign and domestic exporting firms on export decisions of local manufacturing firms in Viet Nam – … Read More

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