Research Back

Trade

ERIA examines various aspects of trade starting from issues that can affect trade such as exchange rate volatility, trade facilitations, trade agreements, mega free trade agreements like the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership agreement (RCEP), trade liberalisation, tariffs and non-tariffs measures, and many more. 

ASEAN, COVID-19, India, Supply Chain, Trade

Robustness and Resilience of Supply Chains During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from a Questionnaire Survey on the Supply Chain Links of Firms in ASEAN and India

15 September 2021

Using a unique firm-level data set from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and India collected from November 2020 to February 2021, this paper … Read More

COVID-19, industry and manufacturing, Japan, Supply Chain, Trade

Identifying the Impact of Supply Chain Disruption Caused by COVID-19 on Manufacturing Production in Japan

10 September 2021

COVID-19 has disrupted all aspects of our lives, including international trade. This paper investigates the effect of supply chain disruption on production activities, in particular … Read More

ASEAN, non-tariff measures, Regional Integration, Trade

Regulatory Distance, Margins of Trade, and Regional Integration: The Case of the ASEAN+5

08 September 2021

This paper measures regulatory distance in non-tariff measures (NTMs) to examine the regulatory distance patterns and how the margins of trade respond to regulatory distance … Read More

East Asia, non-tariff measures, Trade

The Trade Restrictiveness Index and Its Impact on Trade Performance in Selected East Asian Countries

07 September 2021

This paper aims to investigate the effect of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on trade in selected East Asian countries. In doing so, we first estimate the … Read More

ASEAN, Connectivity, COVID-19, Trade

COVID-19, Air Transportation, and International Trade in the ASEAN+5 Region

03 September 2021

This paper provides an in-depth description of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its interactions with air transportation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations … Read More

ASEAN, Trade, free trade agreement

Impact of the ASEAN Trade in Goods Agreements (ATIGA) on Intra-ASEAN Trade

16 August 2021

This report is an outcome of ERIA’s quantitative assessment of the impact of the ASEAN Trade in Goods Agreement (ATIGA) on intra-ASEAN trade. The study … Read More

ASEAN, global value chains, Trade, COVID-19, Supply Chain

UK-ASEAN Trade: Strengthening the Supply Chain Linkages

11 August 2021

The United Kingdom (UK) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have commenced a Dialogue Partnership which foresees years of closer economic relations ahead. … Read More

ASEAN, non-tariff measures, Supply Chain, Trade

Effective Rates of Protection in a World With Non-Tariff Measures and Supply Chains: Evidence from ASEAN

05 August 2021

The concept of effective rate of protection expresses protection on a sector’s final output relative to protection affecting its inputs. As such, it is well … Read More

India, Regulation and Governance, Trade

Technical Barriers to Trade and the Performance of Indian Exporters

04 August 2021

We study the effects of technical barriers to trade (TBTs) imposed by destination markets on prices, marginal costs, and markups of Indian manufacturing exporters. Using … Read More

Australia, China, East Asia, India, Japan, New Zealand, non-tariff measures, NTM, South Korea, Trade

East Asian Integration and Its Main Challenge: NTMs in Australia, China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, and New Zealand

11 July 2021

While East Asia has been moving forward with its regional integration agenda, one main challenge remains and is growing – non-tariff measures (NTMs). Animal, vegetable, … Read More

ASEAN, Trade, Trade Facilitation

Towards Seamless Trade Facilitation in ASEAN Baseline Study

09 July 2021

The Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA), together with the ASEAN Trade Facilitation Joint Consultative Committee (ATFJCC), has developed an ASEAN-specific trade … Read More

Australia, China, COVID-19, Regional Integration, Regulation and Governance, Trade

Economic and Emission Impact of Australia–China Trade Disruption: Implication for Regional Economic Integration

07 July 2021

This study examines the debates on supply chain resilience and the economic and emissions impact of supply chain rerouting using Australia and China trade as … Read More

COVID-19, East Asia, global value chains, Trade

Is the COVID-19 Pandemic Recasting Global Value Chains in East Asia?

06 July 2021

This paper assesses how the current COVID-19 pandemic is shaping global value chains in East Asia after the formidable disruptions inflicted by the health crisis. … Read More

RCEP, Free Trade, ASEAN, ASEAN+6, Asia, pandemic

Impacts of the RCEP on ASEAN and ASEAN Least Developed Countries in the Post-pandemic Recovery

05 July 2021

This policy brief highlights the impact of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement on ASEAN and ASEAN least developed countries (LDCs) in the post-pandemic … Read More

ERIA Research Summary

Summary of ERIA Research Projects 2020-2021

01 July 2021

The Summary of ERIA Research Projects 2020-2021 provides an overview of both new and ongoing projects that ERIA researchers are currently working on as of … Read More

East Asia, global value chains, India, industry and manufacturing, Trade

Potential for India’s Entry into Factory Asia: Some Casual Findings from International Trade Data

30 June 2021

Despite its impressive economic growth in the past few decades, India is slow in adopting a task-by-task international division of labour or international production networks … Read More

Innovation and Technology, non-tariff measures, Trade, Viet Nam

The Effects of SPSs and TBTs on Innovation: Evidence from Exporting Firms in Viet Nam

22 June 2021

Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs) in destination markets may affect firms’ performance. In this paper, we examine how meeting … Read More

ASEAN, global value chains, Regulation and Governance, Trade

The Effect of Non-Tariff Measures on Global Value Chain Participation

21 June 2021

This study examines the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on global value chain (GVC) participation and the underlying mechanisms. Our study employs a novel approach … Read More

COVID-19, East Asia, Trade

East Asian Production Networks Amidst the COVID-19 Shock

02 June 2021

In the East Asian context, previous studies showed that trade occurring through production networks remained relatively steady amidst an economic shock and recovered faster and … Read More

industry and manufacturing, ASEAN, Trade

Promotion of Electromobility in ASEAN: States, Carmakers, and International Production Networks

05 May 2021

This volume seeks to fill the void of scholarly research on electric vehicles (EVs) production and sales in emerging countries besides China by focusing on … Read More

global value chains, Investment, Trade, ASEAN, Asia

Global Value Chains and Investment: Changing Dynamics in Asia

28 April 2021

The emergence of global value chains (GVCs) during the last 2 decades has implications in many policy areas, starting with trade, investment, and industrial development. … Read More

ASEAN, ASEAN+6, Global Governance, Investment, Services, Trade

COVID-19 and Services Trade in ASEAN+6: Implications and Estimates from Structural Gravity

19 April 2021

Given the importance of services for economic activity in general and the salience of reducing service link costs for overcoming the economic and health challenges … Read More

COVID-19, industry and manufacturing, Japan, Trade

Demand and Supply Shocks of COVID-19 and International Production Networks: Evidence from Japan’s Machinery Trade

29 March 2021

Abstract: This paper investigated the impacts of COVID-19 on international production networks in machinery sectors by shedding light on negative supply shocks, negative demand shocks, … Read More

ASEAN, China, COVID-19, Trade

The COVID-19 Pandemic and the World Trade Network

29 March 2021

Global trade is expected to suffer a significant contraction as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Did the relative importance of countries in the world … Read More

business continuity plan, supply chain, Great East Japan earthquake, Thailand, Japan, disaster resilience, Natural Disaster, disaster risk reduction, disaster risk management

Effects of Business Continuity Planning on Reducing Economic Loss due to Natural Disasters

25 November 2020

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) economy has developed rapidly since the 1980s, centred on the automobile industry, and has been connected to economic … Read More

non-tariff measures

Non-Tariff Measures in Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, and the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Findings

05 October 2020

Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) are the new frontier for regional integration and market access, as tariffs have been continuously decreasing. NTMs are at the border and … Read More

Indonesia, trade policy, Globalisation, economic growth, international economic policy

The Economic Impact of Globalisation in Indonesia

14 August 2020

This paper analyses the economic impact of globalisation in Indonesia from the end of the 1960s to date. The analysis found that globalisation generated a … Read More

Innovation and Technology, labour productivity, Thailand, Trade, Imports

Technological Advancement, Import Penetration, and Labour Markets: Evidence from Thai Manufacturing

06 August 2020

This paper examines the impacts of advanced technology on a possible change in workers’ skills, wages, and employment due to such technological advancement. Three proxies … Read More

E-commerce, Digital Economy, ASEAN, Innovation and Technology

Improving Digital Connectivity: Policy Priority for ASEAN Digital Transformation

17 July 2020

This brief proposes a policy framework for digital connectivity to support the development of e-commerce. Using this analytical framework for the Association of Southeast Asian … Read More

Infrastructure, Transport, trade, Connectivity, ASEAN, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Myanmar, Thailand, global value chains, India

The India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Highway and Its Possible Eastward Extension to Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam: Challenges and Opportunities

15 June 2020

About the Study: The Trilateral Highway (TLH) exemplifies the letter and spirit of connectivity between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It … Read More

Trade, Viet Nam, Regulation and Governance, industry and manufacturing

Trade Reform and the Evolution of Agglomeration in Vietnamese Manufacturing

27 April 2020

It is well-documented that agglomeration contributes to productivity growth. However, concentrations of workers could also lead to increasing regional income disparities. Therefore, understanding the evolution … Read More

China, Japan, Labour and Migration, Trade

Labour Market Impacts of Import Penetration from China and Regional Trade Agreement Partners: The Case of Japan

24 April 2020

The impacts of imports on the domestic labour market have been hotly debated recently. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effects … Read More

ASEAN, India, E-commerce, Connectivity, Trade, Regulation and Governance, Digital Economy

E-Commerce Connectivity in ASEAN

14 April 2020

The next Asian miracle of growth could be born with the region's digital transformation. Digital connectivity is the cornerstone that will make the changes feasible … Read More

Thailand, Trade, Exports, Imports, Regional, global value chains, free trade agreement

Do Regional Trade Agreements Really Help Global Value Chains Develop? Evidence from Thailand

04 March 2020

This paper examines the firm-level nexus between exporting and importing by using firm-level data from Thai customs. We differentiate firms’ imports according to the tariff … Read More

East Asia, global value chains, Labour and Migration, Regulation and Governance, Trade

Global Value Chain Participation and the Relative Demand for Skilled Labour in East Asia

14 February 2020

Global value chains (GVCs) may have distributional consequences for the relative demand for skilled labour. This study relates GVC participation to the share of skilled … Read More

industry and manufacturing, microdata, Trade, Viet Nam

The Effects of the Temporary Protection on Firm Performances: Evidence from the Steel Industry in Viet Nam

13 February 2020

Trade protection may have significant impacts on sectors other than those targeted by protection policies, especially when the target sector produces goods that are essential … Read More

Indonesia, industry and manufacturing, microdata, Trade

Production Dynamics in Multi-Product Firms’ Exporting

11 February 2020

To create room for production capacity for exported products, new exporters may decrease either the production of exported products or of other products for the … Read More

industry and manufacturing, Innovation, microdata, South Korea, Trade

Learning-to-Export Effect as a Response to Export Opportunities: Micro-Evidence from Korean Manufacturing

11 February 2020

This paper aims to investigate whether empirical evidence supports the learning-to-export hypothesis, which has received little attention in the previous literature. By taking full advantage … Read More

Indonesia, industry and manufacturing, microdata, Trade

Input Allocation Behaviour on Tariff Changes: The Case of Indonesia’s Manufacturing Industries

10 February 2020

Can firms reallocate their imported inputs to domestic sources when faced with import tariffs? To answer this question, we analyse the input allocation behaviour of … Read More

Antidumping, Innovation and Technology, japan, microdata, Trade

Exports and Innovation: Evidence from Antidumping Duties Against Japanese Firms

06 February 2020

By conducting a difference-in-difference analysis, we examine how the targeted exporters adjust their innovative activities in the face of the negative export shock inflicted by … Read More

industry and manufacturing, microdata, tariff, Trade, South Korea

Does Home (Output) Import Tariff Reduction Increase Home Exports? Evidence from Korean Manufacturing Plant–Product Data

05 February 2020

This study examines the effects of domestic output import tariff reduction on domestic plant export dynamics and clarifies the underlying mechanism, using rich plant–product data … Read More

Trade, GDP, Globalization, Income Distribution

The Economic Consequences of Globalisation in the United States

21 January 2020

The unprecedented rise in global interdependence since World War II, especially since the 1970s, has been very productive. World gross domestic product (GDP) growth increased … Read More

trade, investment, globalisation, Thailand

Economic Consequences of Globalisation: Case Study of Thailand

26 December 2019

The paper reviews empirical works examining the effect of globalisation in Thailand, beginning with a discussion of its integration into the economy. Three drivers of … Read More

services, trade, trade in services, manufacturing, global value chains

New Frontiers for Services in Globalisation

05 December 2019

The building of global value chains in manufacturing is much discussed, but less attention is given to the growth of value chains in services, their … Read More

trade, free trade agreement, trade in services, trade policy modelling

Feasibility Study of the Free Trade Agreement between The Kingdom of Cambodia and The Eurasian Economic Union

04 December 2019

To expand market access to Eastern Europe, Cambodia is currently exploring a free trade agreement (FTA) with the Eurasian Union – a common market comprised … Read More

international trade, trade liberalisation, processing trade, opening up

Processing Trade, Trade Liberalisation, and Opening Up China's Miracle of International Trade

19 November 2019

Understanding the role of international trade is the key to understanding China’s miraculous economic growth. This paper reviews the literature on international trade in the … Read More

Viet Nam, Free Trade, Trade

Economic Consequences of Trade and Investment Liberalisation: The Case of Viet Nam

11 November 2019

Since Doi Moi (Renovation) in 1986, economic integration has been an important pillar of Viet Nam’s reforms. Economic integration has gradually deepened, and even World … Read More

Indonesia, tariff, trade policy, computable general equilibrium model

FTA Strategies to Strengthen Indonesian Exports: Using the Computable General Equilibrium Model

11 November 2019

This paper aims at evaluating the economic impacts of the various Indonesian free trade agreement (FTA) strategies in enhancing export-led growth. The potential impact of … Read More

global value chains, Backward linkage, forward linkage, Total factor productivity growth

Does Participation in Global Value Chains Increase Productivity? An Analysis of Trade in Value Added Data

07 November 2019

This paper examines the impact of global value chain (GVC) participation on productivity by considering both backward and forward participation. Conducting a panel estimation covering … Read More

ASEAN, Russia, Trade, Economic Integration

ASEAN-Russia Trade and Economic Relations: Prospect and Pathways

09 October 2019

Russia has been a full dialogue partner of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1996. The 20th year of ASEAN–Russia dialogue relations was … Read More

Trade, non-tariff measures, ASEAN

Non-Tariff Measures -An Update

04 September 2019

Whilst tariffs have declined following disciplines instituted by the World Trade Organization, the use of non-tariff measures is on the rise worldwide. This trend is … Read More

non-tariff measures, ASEAN, Trade

Regional Integration and Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN

02 September 2019

Though tariffs have been reduced, the number of non-tariff measures (NTMs) continues to increase, and is often blamed in part for the lack of integration … Read More

Trade, SME, Viet Nam, Global Value Chains

Value Added Exports and the Local Labour Market: Evidence from Vietnamese Manufacturing Firms

27 August 2019

The formation of global value chains (GVCs) has reshaped production processes across countries. This paper investigates the relationship between GVCs and firms’ employment by using … Read More

Digital Economy, Industrialisation, Trade Facilitation, Connectivity

The Importance of Industrialisation and Trade Facilitation for Employment-Led Growth in the Digital Economy

30 July 2019

The digital economy will affect the patterns and geographical locations of industries, employment, trade and economic growth. Structural transformation and employment generation policies in developing … Read More

global value chains, Industrialisastion, Connectivity, Trade

The Role of Industrialisation and ICT in Africa’s Growth and Integration into Global Value Chains

30 July 2019

Industrialisation is important for Africa’s growth and sustainable development. Deepening the manufacturing sector and greater integration in global value chains will build more resilient economies. … Read More

ASEAN, Trade, economic cooperation, Europe, Connectivity

Asia-Europe Economic Connectivity: Global Value Chain Structures in ASEM Region

30 May 2019

The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) represents 62% of the global population, 57% of global gross domestic product, and 65% of global trade. Intraregional trade in goods … Read More

trade liberalisation, investment liberalisation, globalisation, productivity

ADBI Working Paper Series: Firm Adjustment to Trade Policy Changes in East Asia

14 May 2019

Abstract Trade and investment liberalization has been one of the key features of economic policy in many developing countries since the 1990s. Research on this … Read More

Trade, Exports

Product Innovation, Exporting, and Foreign Direct Investment: Theory and Evidence from China

27 March 2019

This paper explores the inter-connection between domestic firms’ product innovation, exporting, and the presence of foreign direct investment (FDI). We first set up a theoretical … Read More

Indonesia, industry and manufacturing, Trade

Failure of an Export Promotion Policy? Evidence from Bonded Zones in Indonesia

26 March 2019

This study investigates the impact of the bonded-zone policy on firms’ performance, employment, and extensive and intensive margins of exports, using Indonesia’s medium–large manufacturing establishment … Read More

Trade, Exports

Entering the Export Market: Do Trade Missions Help?

22 March 2019

In this paper, we investigate the impact of trade missions on export performance. Using the census of participant data of the State of Victoria trade … Read More

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