Innovation Process in Public Research Institute: Case Studies of AIST, Fraunhofer, and ITRI
The design of national innovation systems has attracted attention from scholars and policymakers. Firms, universities, and government organisations (including public research institutes) are defined as the three major players, and interactions between the players are considered the key to a successful national innovation system. However, public research institutes are relatively understudied compared to firms and universities, even though their contribution to national innovation is not trivial. This paper aims to understand the detailed processes and reveals practical information regarding the innovation process in public research institutes. Focusing on the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (Fraunhofer) in Germany, and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) in Taiwan, this paper analyses and compares innovation processes of public research institutes with their patent data. Based on findings, this study further discusses issues for better management of public research institutes.