Global Value Chains and Formal Employment in Viet Nam
This study investigates the impacts of integration into global value chains (GVCs) on formal and informal employment in Viet Nam. Utilising the Viet Nam Household Living Standard Surveys and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Trade in Value Added database (in 2010, 2012, and 2014), we examine how GVCs’ engagement affects the share of formal employment (through a fixed effects estimator) and the likelihood of being a formal employee (through a probit estimator). Our estimation results show a positive relationship between the level of GVC engagement and the share of formal employment at the provincial level. While the GVC participation index (measured as the sum of backward and forward participation indices) does not have a statistically significant effect on the share of formal employment at the provincial level, each component of GVC participation (i.e. backward and forward participation) has effects at the provincial level in different directions. At the individual level, we find that provincial GVC engagement is also positively correlated with individuals’ likelihood of being formally employed. However, the probability of being a formal employee (individual) is not directly affected by GVC engagement at the provincial level, but is indirectly affected through the local labour market. Such results indicate that individual and household characteristics are robust determinants of being employed as a formal employee.