Study on the Strategic Usage of Coal in the EAS Region: A Technical Potential Map and Update of the First-Year Study
The demand for coal in East Asia Summit economies is largely due to increasing electricity demand, half of which will be met by coal-fired power generation. Coal use in generating power has vastly increased in India, and future increases are also forecasted in the Association of Southeast Nations (ASEAN) region. As coal is priced lower than petroleum and natural gas, demand for it is therefore expected to continue increasing. Considering their level of development, emerging economies will likely use low-efficient coal-fired power plants such as sub-critical technology. Thus, disseminating clean coal technology for the clean and efficient use of coal in emerging Asia is of pressing importance. To facilitate informed decision-making in choosing appropriate coal-fired power generation technologies, this study examined various technologies--ultra supercritical (USC), supercritical, and subcritical--and compared their generation cost by boiler types and coal price. The study found that USC is both economically sound and environment-friendly; yet, it needs to have an attractive financial scheme to reduce its capital cost. The study also found that there is potential to (i) attract a US$1,803 billion investment from the introduction of clean coal technologies and coal mines, (ii) create jobs, and (iii) reduce carbon dioxide emissions.